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By Dr. Bob Judd, DVM and the Texas Farm Bureau
Texas Farm Bureau Radio Network

Texas Vet News - Hosted by Don Kyser and Dr. Bob Judd
A three-minute program that deals with the everyday care of horses and other animals in urban and rural Texas.

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The disease condition horse owners fear the most is colic, and for good reason.
One report indicated 80% of gray or gray dapple horses over 15 years of age have at least one melanoma.
One of the major causes of sickness and death in baby pigs is the bacteria E. Coli,. The present treatment for E. Coli, infection in all animals is antibiotics. Unfortunately, there are disadvantages of using antibiotics as bacteria become resistant after a period of time.
In 1991, a report was published associating dog owners' use of 2,4-D and an increased risk of malignant lymphoma cancer in their pet dogs. In this study, dog owners who treated their yards more than four times per year with 2,4-D had twice the risk of developing lymphoma compared to dogs not exposed to the chemical.
If you notice your horse limping, pick up the foot and find a nail, what should you do? Most people would just pull the nail out and not worry about it. Well, both of those answers are wrong.
About 90% of affected horses usually die.
Now is the time for all of the people that were so actively involved in supporting legislation closing the slaughter plants to start adopting horses.
Wood chewing and crib biting (also called cribbing) are common undesirable horse behaviors.
A common infectious process is called an abscess. If the abscess has not ruptured, it can be surgically lanced by your vet.
A common injury in performance horses is ligament or tendon damage of the lower legs. Another new treatment has just become available for treatment of ligament and tendon injuries. This new treatment is called UBM and is made by a company called ACell Vet.
Acorns as well as oak blossoms, buds, leaves and stems are all toxic to livestock.
Horse owners are always looking for cheaper medications that will do the same job as Adequan and Legend.
Raising an orphan foal is not an easy task.
All of the drugs that are approved for use in animals are approved by the FDA. The FDA’s center for veterinary medicine monitors all reports of adverse drug events with any drug, medicated feed, or veterinary device used on animals. Adverse drug events are not only undesired effects such as reactions, but also lack of a desired effect.
Today I am going to provide some tips for those of you new to the horse business or those of you considering purchasing a horse.
Commercial pellets have less dust than grain, and whole cleaned oats are less dusty than rolled oats.
This alcohol chemically destroys the cartilage in the joint and allows the joint to grow together without surgery.
Horses with food allergies can have gastrointestinal symptoms, skin symptoms, or both.
Skin testing is probably better rather than blood testing to determine allergens in horses.
Many performance horses have decreased performance because they lose blood in their airways when exercising.
Because ruminants have unique digestion, they are able to use a non-protein nitrogen feed for part of their protein requirements. This is important as non-protein nitrogen, or NPN, is much less expensive than actual protein. The most common source of NPN used in cattle feeding is urea.
Over the last several years, amniotic membrane has been used as a wound dressing.
These deformities can either be evident immediately after birth when they are called perinatal abnormalities, or they can develop as the horse ages when they are called acquired abnormalities.
One of the most important areas to examine after a new foal is born is their legs. This is especially important if a foal is born prematurely as some of the bones in their joints may not be formed completely.
In hot and humid weather, a serious problem in horses can develop called anhidrosis. Anhidrosis is a lack of sweating, and sweating is required to aid in cooling the horse.
There is no such virus as the barn flu but it seems like the flu.
The most common NSAIDs used in horses are phenylbutazone (called bute), banamine, and Equioxx.
For uterine infections, it is common to infuse antibiotics in the uterus. A lot of these mares have material in their uterus that will inactivate the antibiotics, so it is always a good idea to flush the uterus with large volumes of sterile solutions before infusing.
In horses, the most common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea.
Due to a lack of knowledge of these commercial products in horses, a study was done that analyzed 11 different random equine joint health products sold at a feed store. This study found that the amounts of glucosamine varied from 63% of the amount claimed to 112% of the amount claimed.
When natural breeding was compared to AI, there was no difference in pregnancy rates when breeding fertile mares, so breeding mares by AI is very effective.
A major cause of abortions and the birth of premature foals is ascending placentitis. Our ability to evaluate fetal viability is only fair.
The fit of a horse’s saddle is important, and a poorly fitting saddle can lead to back pain as well as decreased performance. Thermography is one technique to determine appropriate fit.
In general, heart problems in horses are not as common as in small animals. However, atrial fibrillation is an arrythmia that does occur in quite a few horses.
The most common heart arrythmia in horses is atrial fibrillation. Young adult standardbreds and thoroughbreds appear to be affected more than other breeds.
These aural plaques are painful, raised small lesions on the inside of the horse’s ear that may not even cause a problem but many times can cause horses to be ear shy due to the pain.
One of those newer products to treat arthritis in horses is called autologous conditioned serum and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein (IRAP).
The AVMA and AAEP statement indicates they support a ban on the use of action devices and performance packages in the training and showing of Tennessee Walking Horses.
The AVMA Animal Welfare Committee has recently developed some guidelines including recommendations for transporting horses.
Low back pain is a suspected cause of lameness and poor performance in the sport horse. Many horses exhibit stiff gaits and reduced ability to push off with the rear legs. However, it is very difficult to diagnose the problem as it is difficult to perform radiographs of this area and symptoms are sometimes vague.
One of the most common causes of infertility in mares is uterine infection due to bacteria. In one study, one third of all barren mares were found to be infected.
Cases that are related to sweat and abrasion with tack are best managed by daily cleaning of the skin immediately after exercise.
A common mistake is to wrap a horse's lower leg with just Vetwrap and no padding.
If a horse can perform the job required without shoes, then they are not needed. However, if hoof wear exceeds hoof growth, then the hoof needs to be protected.
If you had mares bred and they were confirmed pregnant in the spring, it is a good idea to have your vet recheck them in the fall to make sure they are still pregnant.
A dry and soft floor seems to have a positive effect on horse welfare.
Many horses that are stabled or stalled for extended periods will develop some behavior problems including weaving, stall walking, and cribbing.
Not surprisingly, weaving and box or stall walking are more common in horses kept in small to medium-sized stalls.
Another abnormal behavior called cribbing in which the horse grabs a fixed object with its upper incisors and pulls back while appearing to suck air into the esophagus.
True head shaking is the syndrome in which a horse has recurrent, intermittent, involuntary, and sudden bouts of tossing of the head.
Routine equine dentistry is now recommended by most equine practitioners. Two reported benefits of routine dentistry include preventing weight loss and colic.
Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism causes the head bones to enlarge.
Diarrhea, especially in young foals, is a common problem.
Blister beetles cause severe gastrointestinal irritation and colic in horses and in many cases can lead to death.
Supplements are reported to increase a horse's red blood cell production and hemoglobin to boost aerobic capacity but there is little evidence of their efficacy and safety.
Stay as calm as possible, and do not give any medication, especially sedatives.
Developmental orthopedic disease is a term used to describe problems that develop in the bones of growing horses, and there are several different syndromes.
OCD commonly occurs in both joints so if it is in one leg in a certain joint, the other leg should always be checked.
Treatment usually consists of rest, decreased but balanced nutrition, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) and antibiotics if infection is involved.
Botulism can affect all warm blooded animals, but horses are particularly sensitive. Type B botulism is the most common.
If frozen semen is used, it is important to know the quality of the semen after it is thawed, as some semen does not freeze well and this semen is not a good choice if you have a mare that is a difficult breeder.
A mare can have many reasons for having a problem getting pregnant.
The most common drugs used to synchronize heats in mares is the class of drugs called prostaglandins.
If you plan to breed your mare, it is important to determine that she is a good candidate for breeding. This requires a breeding soundness exam by your veterinarian. Your vet will do a complete physical exam to check for any overall health problems that your mare has that could affect a successful breeding.
If you have a stallion you want to stand at stud, you certainly want to make sure he is fertile. The exam will be done after the stallion has had 1 week of sexual rest and will begin by your veterinarian doing a complete physical exam that will focus not only on reproductive areas but also other areas such as lameness.
Many owners feel breeding older maiden mares should not be a problem but it can be.
A common cause of infertility in the mare called infectious endometritis, or infection of the uterine lining.
Vaccines should be given 4 to 6 weeks prior to foaling so as to increase the antibodies in the colostrum for the new foal. Nutrition of brood mares is important. During the last trimester, energy requirements gradually increase approximately 20% at foaling over the requirements of non-pregnant mares.
Decide where you would like the mare to foal and place her in this area at least 30 days prior to foaling so she can become accustomed to the new area as well as become exposed to organisms in the environment and have time to build immunity before the foal is born. The mare’s vulva should also be examined for a Caslick’s.
Bacterial infection of the placenta, called placentitis, is a common cause of late term abortion in mares. Another problem in pregnancy is mares that have been grazing on tall fescue, as a fungal endophyte grows in the fescue plant.
By April, equine breeding season is in full swing.
A uterine infection is a common condition that causes infertility. Veterinarians and breeding farm personnel may be involved either directly or indirectly as the cause of this problem.
Treating bucked shins centers on rest and controlled activity; regardless of other treatments used, reduced training will allow the bone to heal. However, extended rest is not recommended because the horse needs regular but not excessive exercise.
A study was recently published concerning the best body position for the calf, as far as the respiratory and metabolic systems, immediately after the surgical delivery.
Canker results from a bacterium that causes the tissue in the frog and heel bulb region of a horse's foot. Thrush is a bacterial infection that usually affects the frog and causes a dark discharge on the foot that has a foul smell.
Many veterinarians recommend soaking hay in water to decrease the NSCs so the hay can be fed to horses susceptible to laminitis and founder.
Dental disease and Cushing's disease are conditions to watch for in senior horses.
Cushing’s disease is common in older horses, as is metabolic syndrome.
GABA is now a forbidden substances under USEF rules.
Some silent carriers of strangles do not test positive for the organisms until 3 months after their illness.
One disease transmitted from cats to humans is called cat scratch disease, or cat scratch fever. This disease is caused by a bacterial infection of the species Bartonella that can also cause other infections in people.
A cataract is a cloudy lesion that develops in the lens of the horse’s eye. It is important to realize the difference between a cataract, which involves the lens, versus a white or opaque coloring in the cornea.
The most common neurological disease of horses is equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, or EPM. Possums serve as the definitive host for the parasite called sarcocystis neuroma, which cause the disease. Possums are responsible for shedding the infective parasite. The cysts of the organism have been identified in the muscles of cats, raccoons, armadillos, sea otters, and skunks.
Texas cattle lost their class free tuberculosis status in 2002. To regain this class free status, Texas implemented a plan to find any remaining infected herds. The plan is to test all of the stat’s 850 dairies and 2,500 of the registered beef herds by the end of August of 2004.
Decrease of exercise and parasites can cause colic.
CEM is a venereal disease of horses caused by the bacterium Taylorella equigenitalis. This disease causes infertility in mares, abortion in mares, and infertility in stallions. If introduced into a susceptible group of breeding horses, this disease can cause a severe economic loss.
Another cause of colic unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract is cholangiohepatitis. This is inflammation and infection of the bile duct that also extends into liver tissue. This infection usually develops from bacteria that enter the bile duct from the small intestine.
Chronic fatigue syndrome has been suspected in pets and horses, although there are few reports of the disease. Some pets and horses with neurological and muscular disorders have been believed to have chronic fatigue syndrome.
Clinical signs are progressive swelling, thickening of the skin, and scarring of the legs, which can be debilitating in these horses.
Tying up is a muscle condition that is somewhat different depending on the type of horse, as tying up is different in quarter horses than thoroughbreds.
Horses should be injected only with disposable syringes and needles, and new disposable syringes and needles should be used for every injection.
Although it appears to help horses with diseased lungs, it does not seem to help healthy horses.
If your horse develops a cloudy eye, do not wait or treat the eye yourself but call your veterinarian immediately because blindness can occur.
Clubfoot is a condition in horses in which the bone in the hoof called the coffin bone is pulled backward because the structures on the back of the legs are too tight. This condition can occur from birth or can be acquired at an older age.
Most of you with horses have probably heard of a Coggins test, but many new horse owners may be unfamiliar with this test. First of all, Coggins is not a disease, but simply the name of the test. The disease we are testing for is equine infectious anemia, commonly called swamp fever.
Laminitis is a condition in horses that causes severe lameness and sometimes death. Cold therapy can help prevent it.
A recent study indicates that horses with severe colic may also suffer heart damage.
By far, the most common cause of death in horses is colic. Colic simply means abdominal pain, and although this pain can come from any source in the abdomen including kidneys, liver, or reproductive tract, most cases of colic are of gastrointestinal origin. There are many different kinds of colic from mild gas colic to severe causes such as twisting or torsion of the intestine.
If your horse undergoes colic surgery and survives, there is about a 50% chance the horse will be usable at the same level as before the surgery.
Colitis in horses can be caused by many different things, but the most common are abrupt food changes, bacterial infection, use of antibiotics, and stress.
The most common cause of death in baby dairy calves is failure of antibodies to transfer from the cow to the calf after birth. If dairy farms could collect colostrum immediately after calving, the incidence of death in baby dairy calves may decrease.
However, there is a concern with using any compounded product especially when an FDA-approved product is available. First of all, it is illegal for a pharmacy to compound a product that is available commercially.
Congenital hypothyroidism in foals was reported in increasing numbers in 2004 in western Canada. Foals that have these low thyroid hormone levels may develop contracted tendons, protruding lower jaws, and the inability to stand.
Generally, mares are on a 21-day cycle with mares being in heat about 5 to 7 days of this period. Some mares show no abnormal symptoms as far as performance while others are very difficult to train or show when in heat due to behavioral changes. However, it is important to make sure the changes are due to estrus and not another problem, and this can be difficult to determine in some cases.
Mare owners have used multiple options to suppress estrous to prevent the unwanted behavior.
Infectious diseases can be a serious problem on premises where a lot of horses are located, such as a boarding stable or large horse farm.
Although there are many different reasons the horse’s eye can develop a white coloration, the most common are corneal disease and cataracts.
Thirty years ago, this virus was founds in foals and other immunocompromised individuals, but over the last 10 years the virus has started causing disease in adult horses
There is a lot of debate on whether steroids injure or protect the joint and to what extent.
Normal doses of cortisone have been used routinely with no side effects and most horses that have developed laminitis and foundered have been given large doses.
CPR is indicated in any case in which the foal stops breathing or does not have a heartbeat.
A large percentage of foals that die shortly after birth do so because of a lack of oxygen; more foals die from respiratory problems than heart problems.
A specific cause of colic is called epiploic foramen entrapment. The epiploic foramen is a potential space between the liver and pancreas in the horse and it is possible for a portion of the small intestine to get trapped in this space. If the small intestine gets trapped, it is cut off from its blood supply and will die, causing death if not repaired surgically.
These horses commonly grab hold of any stationary horizontal object like a pipe or wood fence with their front teeth and pull backwards.
Castration complications include swelling, infection, excessive bleeding, and herniation of the intestine through the incision.
Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both testicles are not in the scrotum.
A specific group of paint horses may be born deaf.
Almost 5% of the foals born alive die in the first 30 days. I recommend a veterinary exam at the age of 12 hours to prevent problems.
There are many horse diets on the market that have very high levels of dietary protein and many horse owners believe the higher the protein, the better the feed. In most circumstances, I believe these protein levels are too high even for horses undergoing intense exercise.
When horses consume regular water that has low sodium content, and they lose sodium and other electrolytes in sweat, the sodium content in the horse’s body decreases and they are not stimulated to drink. To avoid this problem, electrolytes must be administered to horses orally.
Two major factors cause dehydration: One is not drinking enough water, and second is loosing fluids faster than they are being replaced.
One of the common reasons these problem mares do not get pregnant is delayed uterine clearance. Delayed uterine clearance is the term used for mares that do not have normal uterine activity that is required to clear the uterus of excessive fluid after breeding.
Cryptorchidism is diagnosed when one or both testicles are not in the scrotum but are still either in the horse’s abdomen or in the inguinal or flank area.
A recent study indicated that 82% of racehorses that were reported to make a noise during exercise were accurately diagnosed with this new dynamic endoscope.
As foals grow, it is important to monitor their legs.
EPM is difficult to diagnose because the tests are not very accurate.
Diabetes is rare in horses but many horses are resistant to insulin.
A diastema is a condition in which there is an abnormal space between adjacent teeth, and the veterinarians at the University of Edinburgh have recently reviewed the condition in horses.
A new drug for horses with arthritis containing diclofenac called Surpass has been developed that has less side effects.
Some horses are more hyperactive than others. Researchers at Virginia Tech University took a group of thoroughbreds classified as hot blooded and divided them into two groups.
Some horses that will not stand for the farrier and are difficult may be in pain.
Horses can eat grass or hay, but they were designed to eat native grass by grazing on thousands of acres.
The reason we see so many colic and founder cases is because horses are being fed in a manner that their body was not designed to support.
Prevent contagious diseases from infecting your horses both at your stable and when hauling your horse to other facilities.
Many drugs are used on horses that are obtained from vets as well as other sources in which the vet has not examined the horse and does not have what is called a valid client/patient relationship.
The FDA is concerned about disposal of sharp objects due to other possible transmission of disease to humans and they have developed a new website to guide folks on disposing of sharp medical objects.
One of the most common causes of hind limb lameness in horses is arthritis of the hock.
Many of you may have dogs and also want a well manicured lawn. Urine and feces in small amounts can cause a green up or fertilizer effect. However, dog urine in large amounts can cause dead brown patches surrounded by a green outside ring called lawn burn.
Unfortunately, many people and vets tend to treat donkeys as horses, and they are very different in many aspects. A recent report in a veterinary journal discusses the differences in the pharmacology, or response to drugs, between donkeys and horses.
There are two new techniques to treat these cases in Boer goats using an antibiotic called draxxin that is approved for respiratory disease in cattle and swine.
The main intestinal parasites in horses are bots, large strongyles, small strongyles, pin worms, and tapeworms. Although there are over 100 species of parasites that affect horses, about 50% of them belong to the small strongyle group.
Laminitis is one of the most severe conditions that can develop in horses.
Probably the number one drug used to treat acute laminitis is phenylbutazone, commonly called bute.
There are some dietary supplements commercially available for horses.
Although there are some drugs that may be beneficial, the most important part of horse behavior is training and handling, not the use of drugs.
The cause of the syndrome is believed to be related to difficult birth or premature separation of the placenta at foaling, but some foals may have an unexplained decrease in oxygen even before foaling.
Dust can cause lot of problems for the rider and the horse, including increasing allergies and causing inflammation in the eyes and respiratory tract.
The term used to describe difficulty in giving birth is called dystocia. Dystocia in mares is considered a true emergency where minutes can make a difference in the survival of the foal. Dystocia should be handled as quickly as possible to decrease trauma to the reproductive tract.
West Nile virus is now endemic in most states.
Up to 90% of race horses in training have ulcers, and it is believed a large percentage of other types of performance horses also have ulcers.
Regardless of the weather, horses need to be turned out to maintain natural travel patterns.
There are many different hoof trimming and shoeing techniques for treatment of different conditions in horses. However, there have been few studies verifying the effects of these different methods.
At this time omega 3 fatty acids should not be considered to make a major difference in insulin sensitivity in horses.
If there is swelling or pain while manipulating the elbow, finding the source of the pain is much easier.
Most people that ride endurance horses give them oral electrolyte supplements before and during events, which is really a good idea.
Aggressive behavior by one horse toward others can cause injuries to the horses as well as causing a management problem when stabling or feeding. An electronic collar is not the same as those for dogs, and the advantage of the collar is the horse can be corrected up to a half mile away at the time the undesirable behavior is occurring.
In embryo transfer, the mare is bred and in about 7 to 8 days, the resultant embryo is flushed from the mare’s uterus and placed into another mare to carry the pregnancy.
The best method to prevent bleeding is direct pressure on the bleeding area. This can initially be done with your hand, and then a cotton and vet wrap pressure bandage can be applied if the wound is on the leg.
It's important to not use any medications on the wound if there is a possibility the wound can be sutured. Many medications on a wound can cause damage to the tissue and make suturing difficult. Never use medication on a wound to stop bleeding, especially if suturing is possible as this medication actually kills the tissue.
The disease changes in the lungs are mostly permanent as most horses do not survive.
Both Cushing’s disease (PPID) and insulin resistance (or insulin dysregulation) are extremely important because either of them can lead to laminitis and founder.
Endometritis, or inflammation of the uterus, is a common cause of reduced fertility in mares.
Mares can also develop endometritis after foaling due to contamination during the process, damage to the reproductive tract during foaling, or a delay in passing the fetal membranes.
Endurance riding is a very popular equine sport around the world. At these rides, veterinarians are present not only before and after competition but also during the event at veterinary check points.
When rectal temperatures are found close to the 106 degree range, horses should stop exercising, and methods of cooling should be introduced. Sweating to promote cooling is the most important mechanism of temperature regulation in horses.
Cooling can be accomplished by pouring or sponging large volumes of ice water over the horse’s body and then removing the water with a scraper to remove heat. If the horse is down, ice can be packed on the horse concentrating on the jugular vein area in the neck. Large volume intravenous fluids can help lower temperature and improve circulation and organ function.
Enterolithiasis is the presence of a calculus, or stone, in the intestinal tract of the horse. When the enterolith becomes lodged in the colon, it prevents movement of ingesta and as gas accumulates, severe colic develops.
A specific cause of colic called an enterolith causes an intestinal obstruction.
Back pain is a difficult diagnosis in horses as the signs are vague and horses that appear sensitive to palpation or pressure over the back may not necessarily be painful in this area. Many times back pain is secondary to other problems causing the horse to travel incorrectly and creating stress on the back. Also, back pain can be caused by external factors such as a poor fitting saddle.
The most common mode of botulism poisoning is called forage poisoning and is due to decaying vegetable matter in the hay or small animals like dead mice that were accidentally trapped in the hay when it was baled.
Canker is a disease of the frog in the horse’s hoof that appears initially as a white or yellow growth at the frog.
The interest in animal chiropractic seems to be increasing in the United States especially in equine practice.
Colic is the most common cause of death in horses over 30 days of age.
A tiny scratch that causes a corneal ulcer on a horse’s eye can lead to blindness and possibly require removal of the eye.
Cushing's disease is a fairly common disease in older horses. The major concern with these horses is that founder can occur, as that can be deadly.
Have a veterinarian do your horse's dental - performing these procedures on a horse without drugs is painful for the horse and dangerous for the horse and people performing the procedures.
Some parasites have become resistant to many dewormers.
More than one NSAID should never be used at the same time.
Right now, the most common method of detecting early pregnancy in mares is rectal palpation and an ultrasound. With ultrasound examination, pregnancy can be detected by 14 days after breeding, and sometimes as early as 12 days. However, this requires a veterinarian to perform a rectal exam which can be difficult in some situations, especially if there is a lack of proper facilities on a farm or with a mare that is not easily handled.
Embryo transfer has become fairly common in the horse business due to the increasing success of the procedure. One of the advantages of embryo transfer is that you can get several foals every year from just one mare by breeding her several times, removing the embryos, and transferring them to other mares called recipients.
If you have horses, at some point you will be faced with an emergency. The first thing to do, of course, is to call your vet. But until your vet arrives, there are some things you can do to help your horse.
When wrapping a horse’s leg, a mistake many people make is not using enough padding and getting the wrap too tight. Also, in my experience, for snake bites antivenom is not necessary in most cases.
One of the primary drugs involved in manipulating the equine heat cycle is prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and the only approved drug in horses of this type is Lutalyse.
Most viruses in people and animals are generally host specific. One exception we are dealing with currently is vesicular stomatitis virus that infects horses, cattle, sheep, swine, and deer. However, with few exceptions, viruses that infect horses, for instance, generally do not infect cattle or dogs.
In some situations, up to 90% of performance horses in some situations have ulcers.
Stomach ulceration in horses has generally been believed to occur mostly in horses during race training or other strenuous training. However, a recent study indicates otherwise.
Most horses are commonly fed grain to provide energy for work and performance, and improved performance does occur up to a point with grain feeding. However, a group of conditions called equine grain associated disorders can occur with excessive grain feeding.
Today we will continue our discussion on equine grain associated disorders by looking more at the problems with feeding grain and advantages of feeding fat.
If the horse you want to buy has a heart murmur, should you buy it?
Equine herpes virus causes three different syndromes: respiratory disease, abortion, and neurological disease.
A horse's nasal discharge can be insignificant or very significant depending on the amount and type of discharge.
In this study, horses vaccinated with a high antigen vaccine had less severe clinical signs than unvaccinated horses.
The old saying "no hoof, no horse" is really true. If your horse’s feet have problems, then the horse is basically unusable. Hoof care is critical to prevent lameness problems, and the environment has a major effect on the horse’s hoof.
All influenza vaccines are not created equal because the influenza virus undergoes a process called antigenic drift.
Do you have a horse that will not allow injections to be given or is afraid of other veterinary procedures? Horses can also learn to tolerate or even like most procedures.
You may not realize that jet lag also occurs in horses. All life on earth is influenced by the daily cycles of light and dark, and mammals organize their lives into 24-hour cycles. Jet lag occurs due to an abrupt change in the light dark cycle resulting from travel across multiple time zones.
There is no state licensing for equine massage therapy, and people who claim to be equine massage therapists may or may not have even gone to school.
Equine motor neuron disease or EMND, is a neurological disorder of horses.
The horse’s digestive tract can be basically divided into the foregut and hindgut. The differences in the digestion that takes place in these two areas is critical to understanding how to feed horses.
Water is the most important nutrient in a horse’s diet. Normal water intake is required for normal function of all organs, especially the GI tract.
The most important part of the horse's ration is the energy, not the percentage of protein.
Some horses are sensitive to high carbohydrate rations.
Although all the advertisements in the horse magazines try to convince you otherwise, most of our horses do not need supplements.
The only method of determining which supplements to use is to have a ration analysis performed. The ration is not only the grain or concentrate you are feeding, but also the pasture grass and hay.
Obesity in horses is a serious problem and even though I talk with my clients about the problem if their horse is overweight, most don’t seem to understand the severity of the problem.
It is possible that the deworming medication you are giving your horse may not be effective in killing parasites.
97% of the farms' worms were resistant to Safeguard or Panacur, 53% showed resistance to Anthelcide EQ, and 40% were resistant to Strongid T. Only ivermectin products did not have any resistance in this study.
Some horses have good resistance to parasites and do not require treating while others need frequent treatment. Fecal testing is the only method to determine this.
We are continuing to see increased numbers of cases of pastern dermatitis in horses that I suspect are related to wet conditions.
Equine pastern dermatitis is a condition of irritated skin that occurs on the horse’s lower leg between the hoof and fetlock but can sometimes extend above the fetlock.
Some new products called appeasing pheromones have become available to affect animal behavior. A study revealed that the pheromones are not effective as a training aid although they may be effective in other stressful situations.
Piroplasmosis is a rare disease in horses, also called babesiosis.
Regardless of the amount of money you pay for a horse, a pre-purchase exam is always worth the money.
If you have a really valuable mare, or a mare you just like a lot, you may have thought about getting a foal from her before she dies.
Diagnosis of EPM is difficult and can be very confusing due to lack of a definitive test. Horses that have a positive Western Blot test on spinal fluid that is not contaminated with blood and have clinical symptoms, are treated with antiprotozoal drugs.
When working with horses, the less they are frightened they are, the less innate behavioral response will occur.
Train a horse to accept procedures with a lip chain versus a twitch.
A horse should get a minimum of 1% of the horse’s body weight per day in long stem hay. For a 1000 lb horse, this would be a minimum of 10 lbs hay per day. You should use a good quality hay that provides adequate nutrients. So how do you know the actual amounts of nutrients in the ration you are feeding and if the ration is adequate for your horse?
The most common cause of blindness in horses is a condition called equine recurrent uveitis or ERU.
The skin is the most common site for tumors in horses.
Squamous cell carcinomas are the second most common skin tumor in horses.
Most melanomas occur in gray horses. Treatment of horses with generalized lymphoma is usually not successful.
Equine viral arteritis, or EVA, is a contagious disease. Stallions shed it in their semen.
Equine arteritis virus, or EVA, is a viral disease. Quarter horse breeders are concerned about this disease because it can cause abortions in pregnant mares, deaths in young foals, and most importantly can cause breeding stallions to become permanent carriers of the virus.
If you are planning on breeding your quarter horse mare or stud in spring, you need to contact your vet about equine viral arteritis, or EVA.
Horses have a wide and panoramic view of their surroundings, as you might expect from looking at the placement of the horse’s eyes. With the head pointed forward, horses have a visual field of nearly 350 degrees out of the total 360 degrees of a circle.
Today we are going to talk about vision in horses and what a horse sees and doesn’t see compared to humans.
When people ask their veterinarians to give their horses the dog medicine Previcox instead of the horse medicine called Equioxx, they are asking those veterinarians to break the law and put their license in jeopardy.
Cattle growth promotant implants have shown to be ineffective in preventing heat in mares. The oral progesterone Regu-Mate is somewhat effective but is expensive and must be given every day. Other long-acting progesterone products such as Depo-Provera, which is used in humans, are ineffective in the mare as they do not bind to the equine progesterone receptors.
Although there are many protocols for estrus synchronization in mares, almost all of them use a prostaglandin at some point. However, it’s not as easy at it sounds.
A common behavioral problem can occur in performance mares when these mares exhibit heat or estrus. Mares begin periods of heat due to increasing day length in February or March and this continues through September or October.
Laminitis and founder are related conditions that can occur in horses at any age and can have devastating consequences.
It is difficult to completely prevent influenza because there are many strains of the disease and these strains can mutate quickly and as these strains change, the vaccine may not prevent the disease.
Killed vaccines for equine herpes virus 1 are commonly used to control herpes virus abortion and several studies have revealed these vaccines are effective at least at reducing the number of abortions.
Dr. Judd discusses vaccines for West Nile virus and Potomoc horse fever.
Dr. Judd discusses vaccines for viral encephalitis and tetanus.
Vaccinations for strangles may cause more risks than benefits.
Horses with colic generally show mild or moderate pain but they can have severe pain. Because of this, all horses with colic need to be examined by a veterinarian because without an exam, it is difficult to determine if the problem is merely mild gas colic or more serious.
After a foal is born, immediately check for these parameters to see if the foal is healthy or needs to see the vet.
Learn what to look for when checking a horse’s feet that may give you an idea that there is a problem with a hoof.
Exercising horses produce a tremendous amount of heat and sweat, especially in the Texas heat and humidity. This sweat is important as it allows the horse’s body to dissipate the heat produced by evaporation. Dr. Ken Marcella indicates 65% of the heat produced by a horse is dissipated by evaporation of sweat, and the horse has a lot of wasted heat to get rid of as only about 25% of the fuel taken in by the horse is used for work.
Obesity can lead to insulin resistance that can cause horses to develop a painful foot condition called laminitis.
The most effective drug is omeprazole, which is sold under the trade name GastroGard.
If your horse has been performing at a certain level and that level has decreased, then a vet exam is indicated. Some horse owners may believe their horse is just getting older when actually there may be a problem that can be treated. The first place to look is the heart.
Results indicated exercising pregnant mares from day 16 to day 80 of pregnancy did not appear to be harmful to the growing fetus.
External parasites such as flies, mosquitoes, ticks, and lice can cause decreased performance as well as transmit disease to horses. In some cases, treating the source of the problem, such as eliminating standing water with mosquitoes, can be effective in controlling the problem.
Some of the horses in the study could be caught and others could not, and eye contact had no effect so eye contact may not be a big factor in human-horse interaction.
Multiple conditions can affect the horse’s eye, including trauma, infection, and tumors, but the most common eye problem seen in horses is a corneal ulcer.
Most ranchers gather and work their cattle at some point in the fall of the year. Dr. Bob Hillman, Texas State Veterinarian, says September is a good time for tuberculosis testing.
When foals are born, they have a very small amount of fat soluble vitamins in their system. This is because the equine placenta prevents most fat soluble vitamins from crossing to the fetus during pregnancy. The source these vitamins must then be the first milk, or colostrum.
Feed-associated poisonings can occur in horses and although fairly rare, when poisonings do occur they are usually serious.
There is a large number of myths when it comes to feeding horses.
Alfalfa may have 30% higher crude protein than grass hays.
Feeding wheat bran daily could cause a significant detrimental effect on your horse’s health because it is not a balanced diet and is not effective at preventing colic.
Bread is low in calcium because of the wheat, but wheat is not low in phosphorus.
Horses develop problems when we put them in box stalls and feed them twice a day, because instead of eating 15 hours per day, they eat for two.
More horses develop laminitis and founder on pasture grass due to the high concentration of carbohydrates in the grass than those eating grain.
Oats can be a good ingredient and are palatable but should not be used as a stand-alone ration.
Determining the amount to feed miniature horses can be difficult because tapes and formulas used for weight estimation are for larger horses and may not be accurate in miniatures.
To be able to make appropriate recommendations on nutrition, it is a good idea for your vet to perform blood work on your senior at least once a year.
During the exam, your vet can assess your horse’s condition and make recommendations to keep your horse in good shape.
Older horses can develop liver and kidney disease and this can have an affect on feeding recommendations.
Many studies have been performed that indicate feeding yearlings 40% of the ration as concentrates had optimal growth rates; there are also less problems feeding lower concentrate rations.
For various reasons, baby dairy calves have a high rate of death. In fact, a national study in 1992 indicated that almost 9% of the baby heifer dairy calves died before weaning. This number is about the same as it was 10 years earlier, despite increased knowledge of nutrition and disease.
Fire ants normally do not cause a lot of problems for adult animals that are mobile, but animals who are down and cannot rise on their own can have major damage inflicted by fire ants.
There is now a vaccine available for feline immunodeficiency virus, commonly called feline AIDS or FIV. However, there are some concerns about its use.
A major concern with endurance horses is dehydration and electrolyte balance.
There are some major problems with this drug in horses. It is illegal by most drug and medication rules, and event horses are now being tested for it by most commercial horse drug testing labs. Also, it can cause nervous system side effects.
The side effects of this drug can be extremely dangerous for the horses and people around them.
This spring we have seen a large number of horses with small scabs on their lower legs. These scabs are from fly bites as there are a large number of biting flies in the pastures.
Disturbing the manure once a week will prevent fly eggs from hatching.
Now that the foal is here, there are several things that need to be done. First of all, it is important to determine if the foal is normal. We recommend applying a solution of chlorhexiderm to the umbilicus to prevent infection instead of iodine.
One of the most common causes of sickness and death of young foals is sepsis, or an infection in the blood. Until recently, most vets felt that this infection was acquired through the umbilicus at birth.
Foals derive all of their antibodies to fight infection from the mare’s first milk, or colostrum. Absorption can occur only in the first 24 hours after birth. For this reason, it is imperative to know that the transfer of antibodies from the mare to foal occurred. Even if the foal is nursing that does not guarantee sufficient transfer of antibodies. Failure of passive transfer can occur for several reasons.
A fairly new intestinal disease of young horses is caused by the bacterium Lawsonia.
There are some factors to consider when making the decision to breed during foal heat.
Diarrhea that occurs in the first 10 days of life is usually considered to be foal heat diarrhea.
We are going to review the foaling process and some things to watch concerning possible problems with foaling. By late gestation, the fetus should be facing toward the rear of the mare with the body right side up.
The most commonly used deworming compound in horses today is ivermectin. Ivermectin is very effective in treatment of most equine parasites and resistance is uncommon. However, there have been some concerns over the efficacy of ivermectin against the equine roundworm.
In horses, 85% of lameness cases are caused by a problem in the foot.
Another source of infection in horses are hoof injuries from penetrating objects such as when the horse steps on a nail.
Some of these wounds may be minor, but because of the important and susceptible structures of the equine foot, any foot injury can be potentially deadly.
During the part of the cool season, grasses that are still green can have the highest concentration of carbohydrates in the fall. Also weeds that were thought to have no nutritional value can be high in NSCs and can cause a horse to founder in a pasture with nothing else than weeds.
It has been stated that breeding with frozen semen causes a greater increase in post-breeding uterine fluid accumulation than breeding with cooled semen or natural service. Post-breeding uterine fluid is a normal characteristic of all breedings in horses and has been documented by ultrasound exam.
The use of frozen semen in horse breeding is becoming much more common.
The use of frozen semen is becoming more common in horses due to better freezing techniques and therefore more successful breedings. However, breeding with frozen semen in horses is still very labor intensive compared to live cover or even cooled transported semen.
The cause of these ulcers is mostly management related. Horses continually produce acid in their stomachs, even when not eating.
The combination of intense training, high concentrate rations, small amounts of hay, and stalling all add up to causing the ulcers. If ulcers develop, the most common treatments in horses involve decreasing acid production.
Recent information has revealed that stomach ulcers are much more common in horses that we previously thought.
Bute paste can cause oral ulcers.
This new test, called a sucrose permeability test, is performed on the horse’s urine. This test is fairly simple and inexpensive as a pound of sucrose in water is given to the horse by nasogastric tube.
There are many products on the market for arthritis in horses as this is such a common problem in performance horses. Some of these products are FDA-approved and most are not. One of these FDA-approved drugs for arthritis is Adequan.
One of the most effective methods of decreasing drug cost is by using generic drugs, and most veterinarians use generic drugs whenever possible. Generic drugs are generally anywhere from 30% to 75% less than the trade name product.
The most well known musscle disease of horses is hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, usually called HYPP.
Genetic diseases inherited from the parents are hereditary and those that are caused by acquired changes or mutations in a pre-existing gene or group of genes are genetic but not hereditary.
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Glaucoma is commonly related to horses that have equine recurrent uveitis, so if your horse has a history of eye problems, it is imperative that you have your vet examine your horse before beginning treatment.
Glaucoma is common in humans and dogs but in them the disease is much more of an acute problem in which vision loss can occur within just a few hours. In horses, glaucoma usually progresses slowly with gradually increasing pain and vision loss.
Glue-on shoes are not recommended for long-term treatment but usually for short-term use for a specific problem.
Mares can have an ovarian tumor called a granulosa theca cell tumor that can cause different problems.
You cannot determine what is a complete feed and what is not by looking at fiber amounts on the bag.
Nutrients can be lost if hay is not stored properly and can occur if moisture exceeds 20%.
There is a special type of head shaking that is triggered by light called photic head shaking.
Head trauma is a difficult injury to treat because of the direct effects of the injury on brain tissue and the secondary complications that can occur.
All horses shake their heads to some extent, but horses with headshaking shake so severely that they may not be able to be ridden or can be dangerous to handle
unlike the increase in grain eaten after restriction, there are no health concerns about accelerated pasture consumption.
Heart attacks are really rare in horses.
The most important fact is to know how much water your horse is drinking and if it’s not enough, contact a veterinarian before dehydration develops.
Most of the cases of heatstroke seen at our practice are older dogs that have been outside year after year. As these dogs age, their sensitivity to heat, and for that matter cold, increases. Many older dogs have arthritis and have difficulty rising. They also sleep very soundly. If these dogs sleep in an area of the yard without shade, or if they are unable to get up well enough to get out of the sun, heat stroke can develop quickly.
Symptoms of heaves are difficulty breathing, coughing, exercise intolerance, and abnormal lung sounds. A characteristic sign of heaves is the horse has more difficulty exhaling than inhaling.
In late winter, a lot of horses are kept in the barn due to the bad weather. However, many of these horses may be better off being outside rather than in the barn because of the poor airflow and increased amount of allergens.
If a joint or tendon sheath is involved and it is not treated quickly, many of these infections will require a horse to be euthanized from joint infection.
Many of the causes of lameness can also be caused by inadequate or incorrect shoeing and trimming practices.
Affected horses have hyperextensible skin, meaning it stretches more than normal equine skin. The horses get skin lesions and in many cases the skin sloughs off or dies, leaving an open wound.
Potential problems can develop in mares in late pregnancy. One of the things that can develop in late pregnancy and can cause a problem is an excessively long umbilical cord.
Placentitis, or infection of the placenta, usually develops from organisms that migrate from the vulvar area through the vagina and cervix and into the uterus. The most common sign noted is premature development of the udder or less commonly vaginal discharge.
Another potential problem is long-term gestation.
Horse intestines are designed to digest mostly forage in small quantities all day long; we wonder why they develop problems when we try to feed them large amounts of grain and put them in stalls.
Results of a study that consisted of 92 horses with only suspensory ligament disease that were treated with neurectomy and fasciotomy indicated 78% of them returned to the same level of work they were at before the injury for at least one year.
Ethyl alcohol is injected after making sure only the lower hock joints would be affected.
If your horse is not performing up to potential, the problem may be the hock joints. The hock joint is on the lower rear leg just below the stifle. Inflammation in this joint can cause a prolonged time in speed events, reduced stopping or turning abilities, knocking down rails, refusing jumps, or trouble picking up different leads.
Hog rings cause significant visible damage to the tissue surrounding the teeth and thus can lead to pain and disease of the teeth.
Cracks in the horse’s hoof wall can be minor but many can also be severe and need veterinary intervention.
Large unstable cracks can cause lameness and become infected, and these cracks can be serious.
The function of the sole is to support and protect the underlying structures and to bear some weight around the hoof wall. The sole should be firm and convex.
Just as people have different shapes and sizes of feet, each horse’s feet are different and require different trimming techniques.
Choose flooring materials that keep the floor dry, durable, provides good traction and is easy to clean. Roughened concrete fits these criteria better than most other materials.
Recently some information on the Indiana Horse Rescue website has many horse owners unnecessarily worried about their horse’s health.
There are two basic options for stall flooring, those impervious to liquids and those porous. Which is best?
Horses hauled for 24 hours required 8 hours to clear the respiratory tract and have a higher risk of colic.
Horses commonly suffer lacerations that may be very deep and, especially on the lower legs, may expose a large area of bone. All horses with lacerations involving exposed bone should be seen by a vet as soon as possible.
We used to think that horses did not need dental care until they were 8 to 10 years old, but now we know that horses of all ages need dental exams and possible treatment.
A 1,000-pound horse should only carry 200 pounds and that includes saddle, rider, and equipment.
One of the most difficult problems we face is equine medicine is getting horses to drink enough water, and they drink less in winter.
One concern about horse shows is exposing your horse to the diseases of other horses.
If your horses get dehydrated, it is important to know how to cool them off.
For many years it was believed that hypothyroidism was a fairly common syndrome in horses, as it is in dogs and humans.
March is the time of the year in Texas when most of the foals are born and the people caring for these foals at birth should be knowledgeable about delivery and abnormalities. Today we will discuss a method of CPR in foals that also works in newborn calves.
Breathing of the foal should be assessed immediately after birth. Most normal foals will begin breathing within 30 seconds after birth and should breathe 60 to 70 breaths per minute. Normal foals will develop a suckle reflex in 5 minutes and normal heart rate should be 60 to 120 beats per minute.
Several abnormalities can be found in foals the first 30 days of age. All foals should be checked for fractured ribs at the first exam. The foal’s eyes should also be examined at the first exam as many foals can have a condition in which the eyelids are rolled in toward the cornea that will cause corneal damage if not repaired.
All foals should have their legs examined at birth and any abnormalities noted. Some foals, especially those that are premature, can have collapse of the bones in the knees and hocks. Another leg condition is the windswept foal. These foals have a conformational defect in which both fore legs or hind legs are slanted in the same direction.
Early intensive handling of domestic animals involves a program of handling very young animals and introducing them to various procedures and stimuli. Early intensive handling in horses is called imprint training.
The most common cause of joint infection is bacteria that gets in the blood stream and ends up in the joints. Treatment of these joint infections must be aggressive.
Infectious diarrheas are common in young foals, and severity of the disease varies from mild to deadly.
Although vaccines are available for many diseases, they are not 100% effective and there are some diseases for which vaccines are not available to protect the horses. Consequently, it is important to use some management techniques to prevent spread of contagious disease.
Disposable clothing should be worn over regular clothes to prevent contamination by farm workers. Stall bedding that is removed from stalls housing sick horses should be removed from the property and not dumped in an area other horses can be exposed to. Another concern for disease control is rodent prevention.
Today we will look at problem mares, or those mares with chronic infection or inflammation, and what we can do to get them in foal. As with all brood mares, it is important to make sure to repair, if possible, any anatomical abnormalities that may be present.
Some mares, usually due to severe uterine damage, are unable to maintain a pregnancy. Many medications have been used in the mare’s uterus in an effort to cause a severe inflammatory response thereby sloughing the endometrium and allowing a healthy endometrium to regrow.
Diagnosis of these infections is done with a culture and sensitivity and cytology of the uterus. Common organisms found to cause endometritis are bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Because contaminants may be found on the uterine culture, it can be difficult to determine if an organism is actually causing a problem.
Many of you may have mares that you would like to breed but have been unable to get them pregnant. If this is the case, you will probably need to be more aggressive to determine the cause of infertility rather than just trying to breed them again and see what happens.
Although horses only breathe through their noses and the upper respiratory tract filters out a lot of inhaled material, it cannot filter out all of the very small particles.
Inflammatory airway disease in horses is more common than most realize, although it is not infectious.
Many non-veterinarians that have purchased this equipment and are performing thermal scans, but they are not using correct guidelines and are not interpreting the images correctly.
The size of the wound is not as important as the location.
In most cases with fertile stallions, recent studies have indicated that as few as 20 million sperm have achieved acceptable pregnancy rates using fresh semen.
Normally semen is deposited in the body of the uterus but a new technique involving placing semen deep in the uterine horn near the ovary has been used, especially with studs that have lower numbers of viable sperm.
More horses actually develop laminitis due to hormonal problems that any other reason.
If you have a horse with a cresty neck or other abnormal fat deposits, your horse may be insulin resistant even if they are not obese.
If we do not change the old practices of deworming all horses every 8 weeks, we will soon not have any dewormers that are effective and this will be a real problem for the horses.
Specific parasites require specific dewormers and should be used at specific times.
If the air temperature and humidity added together are more than 150, it may be too hot for your horse to go riding.
If you don’t know your horse’s normal water consumption, it is difficult to know abnormal.
Equine roundworms may be developing resistance to ivermectin.
Renal failure in horses is fairly uncommon but acute renal failure can develop as a complication of another disease that causes a decrease in circulation, like severe colic, or exposure to antibiotics or NSAIDs when dehydrated.
When a laceration occurs, how do you tell if a joint of tendon sheath is involved?
It turns out that all horses that are lame or have minor gait changes may not have a leg problem at all, but could have disease in the neck.
One of the most devastating conditions that affects horses is founder, also called laminitis. It is called laminitis because the disease is characterized by inflammation of the lamina in the horse’s foot, and the lamina is the tissue that attaches the bone in the foot to the hoof wall.
Founder is difficult to treat when the reason it occurs is unknown. By the time the horse is showing symptoms of laminitis, structural and vascular damage has already occurred in the foot and the disease has a head start on any treatment.
In cases of acute founder, support of the sole is the most important thing. This can be accomplished by standing the horse in deep sand. This is the easiest approach and works well.
Overweight horses and those with equine metabolic syndrome or Cushing's are susceptible to laminitis and founder.
The Laminitis Trust, a charity in the United Kingdom, has developed a set of criteria for horse feeds, and all companies that produce feeds that meet their criteria, may use the Laminitis Trust logo. Feeds that meet the criteria can be used in horses to aid in preventing laminitis and can be fed to horses already suffering from the syndrome.
Laparoscopy involves the use of a telescope and a camera to look inside the abdomen and uses two to three small incisions that heal quickly.
A fairly rare but important condition of Arabian foals is called lavender foal syndrome. Lavender foal syndrome only occurs in newborn Egyptian Arabian foals and has been recognized for over 50 years.
Lawsonia intracellularis usually affects foals about the time of weaning.
One of the most common toxicants in cattle is lead poisoning. Lead has been recognized as toxic for over a thousand years and still causes poisoning in people, wildlife, and domestic animals.
Lice can be diagnosed fairly easily if you know to look for them as they can be seen without magnification.
Lightning strikes can injure horses. While 70% of humans that are struck by lightning survive, the injury is fatal in most horses, but not all. The reason may be that it is difficult to apply CPR to a horse, many horses are struck when no humans are around to observe the injury and seek help, and the larger body mass of the horse may provide greater tissue resistance leading to more heat buildup and tissue damage.
All foals should be examined by your veterinarian at 10 to 12 hours after foaling, even if the foals are normal.
Diseases of the liver can be acute or chronic. Liver disease can be caused by long-term exposure to poisons, cancer of the liver, or infections. Liver disease that affects foals from birth are usually related to an abnormality of the large blood vessels.
The most common liver disease found at their diagnostic lab is hepatitis. Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver and is commonly found in foals due to bacterial infections. There is also Tyzzer’s disease, equine herpes, serum sickness, hepatic lipidosis, and cancer.
Sometimes horses sweat in small patches on one side of the neck or shoulders and it looks unusual with no sweat anywhere on the horse except an area that is maybe 8 to 10 inches in diameter.
Some horses appear to be sensitive over the hip area and multiple causes are suspected.
Low heels are common in the front legs but can also occur on the hind legs and can cause lameness due to heel bruising and heel damage.
Equine metabolic syndrome and Cushing’s disease require feeds that contain low levels of non-structural carbohydrates or NSCs. That means that sweet feeds and most grains can not be fed.
Respiratory disease is fairly common in horses and can have a serious effect on a performance horse as well as a horse at pasture.
Some lower leg lacerations can be deep and can affect important structures like tendons, ligaments, and joints.
These birds can carry ticks into new areas.
Diagnosis of Lyme disease in horses is fairly difficult because not as much work has been done in horses as in dogs, but it is believed to occur. 
Turning out horses in a large pasture maintains fitness as well or better than stalling them half a day, turning out at night in a small paddock, and exercising 2 hours a day.
As stallions age, their breeding performance can decrease dramatically. Musculoskeletal and neurological disease can account for 50% of the breeding difficulties.
The first step is to provide good nutrition for the cows prior to calving. The immune system of the calf develops in the last portion of the pregnancy and protein is important for proper immune system development and good quality colostrum.
Heaves is a disease of horses in a dusty environment as the dust particles cause a reaction in the lungs of some horses.
Older horses are more likely to have certain diseases.
When managed properly, manure can be a valuable resource as a source of nutrients and can improve soil quality.
The first stool that is produced by a new born foal is made up of meconium. In foals who have not passed meconium by 12 hours, an enema is indicated to aid in passage.
Do glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate really work?
60% of the lameness in horses is due to arthritis.
Melanomas are commonly malignant tumors in people and non-grey horses but the type of melanoma that commonly occurs in grey horses are considered to be benign.
If you own a grey horse over the age of 15 years, it is likely your horse has some tumors on the skin called melanomas.
It is important to feed hay in racks and not on the ground but you need to make sure the racks or troughs are clean and not contaminated with feces from pests.
When microchips are inserted, skin damage from the needle initiates an inflammatory reaction that begins repair of the tissue; the inflammation also prevents infection of damaged tissues.
This product may really be helpful in many of these conditions but there are many problems with the study about it.
A disease syndrome that affects the middle ear in horses as well as the bones and joints around it is called temporohyoid osteoarthropathy.
Miniature horses and miniature donkeys have become very popular as pets and show horses. Health care of these little equines is basically the same as full-sized horses with a few differences.
Many times, the actual type of MRSA infection is different in humans than horses but it is still MRSA.
The incidence of MRSA infections is unclear but it seems to be on the rise.
One key is that horses with navicular syndrome usually respond to pain with hoof testers over the frog.
Doctors have had good success diagnosing horses with navicular disease using MRI.
Although this trauma can occur in an apparently normal foaling, it more commonly occurs in maiden mares and in cases that require manipulation of the fetus by a veterinarian to aid the foal’s birth.
All foals should have an IGG test at 10 to 12 hours after birth, especially foals from mares that have leaked milk. If the foal is tested and is low in antibodies and has been nursing, then the mare’s colostrum is devoid of sufficient antibodies.
One concern during the foaling process is a red bag delivery. This occurs when the fetal membranes do not rupture and the placenta is separating from the uterus. You will see a red velvety structure appearing at the vulva. This structure must be carefully but quickly opened and the foal delivered. Once the placenta separates, the foal can not get oxygen and will die unless it can breathe.
A condition called neonatal isoerythrolysis can develop in newborn foals that causes the destruction of their red blood cells. It’s a lot easier to prevent this syndrome than treat it.
A new device called a light mask has been developed to allow mares to be turned out and still provide added light.
The roots of the teeth start to dissolve and many horses will develop large swellings over the roots of these teeth. Eventually, the teeth will become infected and may even fracture because the roots are so weak.
Many horses have immunity to fight off the parasites without deworming and can limit the parasite life cycle without deworming medication.
The three risk factors for developing EPM were horses that lived with cats, horses that were used for western performance or racing, and horses over 2 years of age.
Tendon and ligament injuries are common in performance horses and treatment of these injuries is very difficult. However, there are some new treatments for these injuries.
To make sure as many calves live as possible, I am going to share some tips.
Horses are not very susceptible to nitrates and their bodies do not readily change nitrate to nitrite, which is more toxic.
This bioelectric device could be used as an option, particularly in instances of proud flesh.
If you keep your horse in a stall in a barn, you may be causing respiratory problems in your horse and yourself.
Many of these products sold with unproven label claims and advertised with illegal medical claims.
There is some question as to the best feeding regimen to prevent gastric ulcers in horses.
After the first month, foals require some supplementation for adequate nutrition and growth as foals who only have mare’s milk after the first month will grow at a reduced rate.
You may find yourself in a situation where you are required to take care of a horse that has been underfed or even starved. This occurs when horses are abandoned or confiscated by animal control. Taking care of these horses may seem simple. However, the method of feeding is important.
New objects presented to a horse can be non-frightening if the animal is allowed to approach the object voluntarily.
It is possible that supplementing with omega 3 fatty acids can reduce anxiety in horses.
If you have a horse, chances are you either give your horse an oral joint supplement or know someone who does because the oral joint supplement business brings in over $50 million in annual sales.
Dr. Stacey Oke has developed a system for horse owners to help them choose a product that may be of better quality than some others.
Calf scours is the most common disease of calves. Regardless of the cause of the scours, most of these calves die from dehydration. The most economical method of rehydrating calves that are mildly to moderately dehydrated is by administering oral rehydration solutions. Calves that are severely dehydrated should be treated with intravenous fluids.
Just because the baby is alone does not mean the mother is not nearby or returning; most wildlife do not routinely abandon their young.
What do you do when you believe your horse has colic? First of all, all cases of colic are potentially fatal and should be examined by your vet.
Using bute and banamine together was no more effective for pain control than using either drug separately.
Shoeing changes can help with certain conditions but any change must be considered carefully so as to not damage other structures
The problem is that many of the parasites have become resistant to deworming medication and the reason they are resistant is overuse of the drugs over the last 50 years.
Inflammation and infection can develop that can be extremely painful. Scabs and crusts form in the area that further increase the pain. These cases may look simple but can be difficult to treat and your veterinarian should be contacted.
Lacerations of the pastern area are difficult to heal because every time the horse takes a step, the laceration on the back of the pastern opens and closes.
If you have a foal that has any nervous system signs, the foal may be a dummy foal and most of them require immediate intensive care to survive.
Phosphine gas was released from a toxic pesticide applied to feed to kill weevils. All of the horses that died at the Texas A&M college had phosphine gas in their stomachs.
Pigeon fever doesn’t occur in pigeons but in horses.
Pigeon fever is not a disease of pigeons, but one that affects horses. It is called pigeon fever because the disease commonly swells the horse's breast to look like a puffed out pigeon breast.
Pinkeye is the most common eye disease of cattle and costs cattle owners 150 million dollars per year in reduced rate of gain.
Piroplasmosis is a blood-borne parasitic disease that affects all equines and usually causes fever, anemia, yellowing of the membranes of the eyes and mouth, and urine that is tinged dark brown to red.
Most cases of placentitis are caused by bacteria that have ascended from the mare’s vulvar area up to and through the cervix.
Poisoning could affect your horse.
One possible toxin is a fungal toxin found in grains, such as aflatoxins and fumonisin.
Mares can also have a severe bleeding episode from the uterus and can die from hemorrhage within hours, or the bleeding can be contained within the uterus. If you have a mare that prolapses, keep the uterus clean and hold it up level until your vet arrives, although be careful manipulating it so you do not make a hole with your fingers.
Although Potomac horse fever is most commonly seen on the East coast, it may become important in Texas as heavy rains with standing water and flooding increase levels of the causative organism across the U.S. It was been reported in the Midwest in 2004 and as close to Texas as Oklahoma, so infection in Texas is certainly possible.
Potomac horse fever causes acute onset of depression, decreased appetite, and fever in horses as well as diarrhea, decreased intestinal signs, and mild colic.
Today’s program will deal with some things you will need to consider before making this purchase. First, will you be keeping the horse on your property, or will you board the horse with someone else?
The pre-purchase exam is performed by a veterinarian before the purchase to check out the horse for the buyer. There is no such thing as a horse passing or failing a pre-purchase exam. The veterinarian will present exam findings to the buyer and it is the buyer’s decision whether or not to purchase the horse.
A common problem that leads to the loss of foals is premature birth. Foals born at less than 320 days of gestation are considered premature. Unfortunately, the survival rate of premature foals is not very good, even in intensive care situations.
neonatal isoerythrolysis. This disease in seen in 1% to 2% of the equine population. It occurs in a foal when the foal ingests colostrum that contains antibodies which react with the red blood cell antigens the foal received from the stud, and the foal’s red blood cells are destroyed. To prevent this problem, mares can be tested 2 weeks before foaling for antibodies.
Mange basically means a disease caused by mites, but there are many different types of mites.
Contagious and infectious diseases are serious threats to horse health and the economy of the equine industry.
Strangles is a serious upper respiratory tract disease that is caused by the bacteria strep equi and is highly contagious. Influenza is another contagious disease but is a virus.
Herpes virus infection, commonly called rhino, is also an upper respiratory tract disease. Another contagious infection is salmonella, a bacterium that causes gastrointestinal disease.
One of the scariest thoughts for a horse owner is the possibility of a fire developing in their horse barn and today I am going to mention some things you can do to prevent a barn fire from occurring.
Horses with equine metabolic syndrome should be fed a low-carbohydrate diet to prevent founder.
Most ulcers in horses are man made as they are uncommon in wild horses and horses that graze on large amounts of acreage.
The drug has different forms approved for horses and dogs.
Whether the horse is trapped by a collapsed barn or down on the ground due to an injury or disease, it must be picked up as soon as possible, preferably within 4 hours, to prevent further injury to organs.
Most of the pregnant mares supplemented with progesterone probably do not need it.
West Nile is now considered to be endemic in the U.S., and transmission to humans and horses is possible.
Another skin infection is caused by a bacterium called Dermatophilus and the condition is called rain scald or rain rot.
Hypersensitivity to flying insects such as flies and mosquitos is the most common cause of itching in horses.
To treat horses who are scratching and itching, you have to know the exact cause before you can treat the problem.
Many horses, just like humans and other animals, can have inhalant allergies. Inhalant allergies can cause itching and hives on skin but can also play a role in respiratory conditions.
One of the most common causes of itchy skin is a bacterial infection of the skin.
Plants in the pasture are a common source of liver disease in horses.
If your horse has a rapidly growing skin lesion that is not responding to normal wound treatment, contact your vet as soon as possible because early cases of pythiosis have a much better prognosis than ongoing cases.
Quest is in the same family of drugs as ivermectin but Quest is much more effective against the most serious parasite affecting horses at this time, the small strongyle.
Since one infected horse could expose hundreds of people at events like a horse show, rabies must always be considered as a possible diagnosis in a horse showing a neurological disease. Rabies is usually transmitted to the horse by a bite from a wild animal.
Many racehorses develop injuries during training and racing and the cause of these injuries involves many factors. Two recent studies were done with thoroughbreds and quarter horses concerning their conformation and how this related to injuries.
Ringworm is a fungus, and rain scald is caused by a bacterium that is normally present on horse’s skin but it does not cause a problem unless the skin is damaged.
Urticaria, or raised skin lesions, is not a disease in itself, but it is a clinical sign.
Rattlesnake bites cause two major problems in horses: swelling in the nasal area and dehydration.
Stressed horses may seem to be frightened or nervous. Sometimes this may be exhibited by running, other times horses may develop vices including cribbing or stall weaving.
It is possible that the rectum can tear during the procedure and almost all the time it is not the fault of the veterinarian, but it can lead to the horse's death.
Regu-Mate is routinely used in mares for synchronization of the estrus cycle for breeding. However, it has been reported that many trainers administer Regu-Mate to stallions to aid in their management. A report indicates that several studies in males of various species have demonstrated that exogenous progesterone can reduce serum testosterone levels.
A common problem in some horses is injection shyness. These horses just see the veterinarian walk up, or get out the syringe, and they become nervous and difficult to handle due to past negative experiences with veterinary procedures.
Tendon injuries are fairly common in performance horses. Rehabilitation of these injuries requires a lot of time and effort for healing to occur.
If you have an older mare that you would like to breed that is overweight and has equine metabolic syndrome or Cushing's disease, it is important to address these problems before considering breeding.
A common area of disease in newborn foals is the respiratory system. When a foal is born, they should be breathing normally almost immediately. The foal’s mucous membranes should be pink within the first 30 seconds after birth. Any respiratory distress or bluish mucous membrane color is reason for an immediate vet exam as some of these foals will need oxygen.
The most common problem is aspiration pneumonia which is actually due to an upper respiratory problem. Many times this occurs due to neurological dysfunction because of neonatal maladjustment related to a lack of oxygen at birth.
It is important to realize that this is an emergency situation and to never pull on the placenta by hand.
Whether or not to perform colic surgery is a difficult decision for many owners as the surgery is expensive and if the horse survives, the question is will the horse be useful for his intended purpose in the future.
<I>Rhodococcus equi</i> causes a severe pneumonia with abscesses in a foal’s lungs.
The hot dry weather we usually have in August increases the chance of a severe type of pneumonia in foals called Rhodococcus equi pneumonia. Although almost all horse farms have some amount of this organism on the premises, the disease is common and severe on some farms, sporadic on others, and fortunately unrecognized on most.
Early diagnosis of this type of pneumonia is difficult as foals get sick slowly and by the time they show symptoms they are seriously ill. The diagnosis of this infection can be aided by a blood count, fibrinogen concentration, radiographs of the chest, and serology. However, a definitive diagnosis must be obtained by culture from a trans-tracheal wash or PCR test.
Prevention of Rhodococcus centers around decreasing the number of organisms inhaled. It is important to keep foals out of the heat during the hottest part of the day, and keep the concentration of foals kept together as low as possible. Also, foals should be kept in areas with grass, areas with the least dust possible, and areas with good ventilation.
Pneumonia is not a common disease in horses but there are several predisposing factors that can cause pneumonia to develop.
A successful arena surface is no better than the underlying base.
Ringworm is actually not a worm at all, but a fungal infection. Treatment of horses has historically involved bathing or rinsing with iodine or chlorhexidine-based products.
Probably the most common skin disease seen in horses in Texas other than fly allergies is ringworm. Ringworm is not a worm at all but actually a fungus.
Rats and mice can carry and transmit many diseases to people and other animals such as salmonella, leptospirosis, and even rabies. Also, it has been reported than 100 rats can eat over a ton of feed in one year and that’s enough to feed a 1000 pound horse for a year.
The most common disease of this joint is arthritis or injury to the ligaments around the joint. Injury to ligaments surrounding the joint can lead to instability of the joint and subsequent pain.
A trained veterinary technician or assistant should hold your horse for the veterinarian. However, sometimes this is impossible and the veterinarian has to trust you to hold the horse.
It’s much safer when holding the horse to stand on the same side as the veterinarian so the horse can move away from both of you if necessary.
Although salmonella infection in horses is not new, the fact that this bacteria is resistant to most antibiotics is new.
Sand in a horse’s intestine commonly causes diarrhea and colic as well as weight loss.
Many areas of Texas have sandy soils, and horses raised on these areas can develop a type of colic called sand colic.
Until recently, you waited 11 months after breeding your mare to find out if you had a colt or filly. Now, with sex sorted semen, mares can be bred and the sex of the offspring predetermined.
Probably the most common condition that affects mares after foaling is septic metritis, which is an infection in the uterus.
Horses can become dehydrated easily, and after prolonged periods of exercise can develop what is called the exhausted horse syndrome.
In some horses, one heel may be displaced higher than the other one, and this is called sheared heels.
Sheep are pregnant approximately 146 days and goats about 150 days. Dr. Mary Smith from Cornell recommends using the 30-30-30 rule.
Shivers is characterized by trembling of the tail when held erect, trembling of the thigh muscles, and a flexed and trembling hind limb
If you have a wound on a horse’s leg, use of shock wave to decrease healing time is questionable.
It is always a question, when you have a horse with laminitis shod in a certain manner, when should you expect results? To answer this question, a study was done at the Department of Animal Science at Texas A&M to evaluate the short term effects of four different therapeutic shoeing systems on horses with chronic laminitis. As with all good scientific studies, a group of horses with laminitis were used as the control group that was not treated with corrective shoeing.
It is possible that long-term wrapping and bandaging legs may be doing more harm than good in some cases.
This drug is so common that horse owners believe it is safe enough that it can be used like a person taking aspirin; however, it can have serious side effects if not used correctly and sometimes even if it is used correctly.
Most nasal discharges are from a respiratory system infection, but sometimes it's an issue within the sinus cavities.
Sleep disorders can cause some serious problems for horses and the most common sleep disorder is sleep deprivation.
A common cause of excessive salivation is a condition appropriately called slobbers.
Small airway inflammatory disease, or SAID, is not a contagious disease but a disease that in the first stages causes exercise intolerance.
As the disease progresses, horses develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease also called heaves and these horses have a difficult time breathing, sometimes even at rest. Treatment of heaves initially involves drugs to enable horses to breathe easier.
Soaking a horse's foot can cause some problems, especially if soaking is continued for more than a couple of days.
A main concern about mixing horses is injuries that could occur during aggressive encounters.
Soring is deliberately inflicting pain to exaggerate the leg motion of horses so they will perform better at horse shows.
One of the major ingredients in many pet foods is soybeans and soybean related products. These soybean foods also contain phytoestrogens, which are non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity. These phytoestrogens are reported to have both positive and negative effects on the health of humans and other animals.
Symptoms of splint inflammation, commonly called popping a splint, are pain and swelling around the bones.
Sometimes hard training can cause the bones to develop inflammation at the sites of attachment to the large bones between the knee and fetlock. This is the condition called splints.
This tumor is most common on horses with white skin around their eyes.
Horses are capable of sleeping standing up because of a stay apparatus in their rear legs. However, they can only go into what’s called slow wave sleep while standing. Horses must lie down, preferably on their sides, to achieve paradoxical sleep. Paradoxical sleep is the stage where complete muscular relaxation occurs.
Handling a stallion can sometimes be a real challenge and someone without experience can not only endanger themselves but can also cause major long-term breeding problems for the stallion.
The two most important maneuvers that all stallions must be taught are to stop and to back up when commanded.
Most of you who have been around horses have probably heard the term proud cut, but there is no such thing as a horse being proud cut.
Which one is better for your horse depends on your performance discipline.
The reality is there is little scientific proof concerning the success of stem cells or which of the many different methods is the most effective.
Horses in highly competitive events, such as racing and show jumping, are commonly affected with stomach ulcers. Exercise and training have been shown to increase the chances of ulcers developing.
One of the most contagious diseases seen in Texas horses is strangles.
Because strangles is so contagious, I am going to discuss methods of prevention.
If the nasal discharge is yellow, a primary or secondary bacterial infection is common, and one of these bacterial infections is very contagious.
The lymph nodes that swell under the throat must be allowed to abscess and rupture for the horse to get over the condition. Horses that recover can be contagious for weeks afterwards and some even longer. There are killed vaccines available as well as a live intranasal vaccine.
Strangles is a common upper respiratory tract infection in young horses. Most of the time strangles is a mild disease. However, complications can develop after strangles infection.
Soaking the foot for more than 2 to 3 days can actually worsen the problem by softening the sole and decreasing the its protection.
Some new techniques are being used to treat suspensory ligament injuries.
None of the approved products for horses have an effect on the equine tapeworm until recently. Merial Animal Health has received FDA approval on a product called Zimecterin Gold. This product contains ivermectin with added praziquantel for the treatment and control of equine tapeworms.
Feeding hay in feeders is the best method to prevent waste.
All horses should get vaccinated for tetanus every year. There are two different types of tetanus shots.
There is a barefoot movement among a group of horse people who believe all horses should be unshod regardless of the horse or activity. Unfortunately, no scientific studies exist at this time to prove their beliefs.
Each horse must be looked at as an individual to determine whether they should be shod or not. It is easier for a horse to be barefoot if they have never worn shoes. Once a young horse wears shoes, they should be given a break from work for 2 to 3 months if you remove the shoes.
There are also a lot of other substances being injected into horses and I call them substances because they are not drugs.
Those of you that have donkeys know they are special animals and are different from horses in many ways, but many people don’t realize the differences.
Even the cleanest of barns have large amounts of organic dust, including endotoxins and molds, that can lead to inflammatory airway disease and poor performance.
Equine infectious anemia, or EIA, was first reported in this country in 1888 and there is still no treatment or vaccine is available. The disease can occur in two main forms - an acute and a chronic form.
EIA is considered a classic blood borne infection, and people have inadvertently played a role in transmission over the years by using blood-contaminated materials such as needles between horses. Most frequently, transmission occurs between horses by large biting insects.
The four-point trim was designed to prevent or treat the long toe and low heel syndrome that many performance horses seem to develop.
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Recent legislation was probably intended to be in the best interest of horses but actually has had a negative impact on the problem.
We do not specifically know the complete effects of hypothyroidism on pregnancy in mares. However, supplementation of thyroid hormone in a mare that doesn’t need it will cause the horse’s thyroid gland to stop working.
When to begin vaccinating foals depends on the mare's vaccination status.
When you look for wound medications, there are numerous choices. Although all of these products may be effective with certain wounds, different wounds require different treatments.
Povidone iodine is not effective as a disinfectant in the presence of organic matter such as blood. Chlorhexidine has been shown to allow more rapid healing than iodine solutions. Topical triple antibiotics do not have a large range of effectiveness in equine wounds.
As far as prevention of proud flesh, cortisone ointments are the most effective in my opinion. Various enzymes are commonly recommended for equine wounds and one such enzyme is in a product called Granulex. Use of topical herbal therapies are anecdotal so at this time, their use can not be recommended.
As you plant shrubs around your horse barns and fences, it is important to realize some of the commonly used shrubs for landscaping can be toxic to horses and other livestock.
All horses need to be able to load into a trailer.
After the horse gets comfortable loading, the first ride should only be a few minutes because long first rides tend to scare horses and make loading more difficult.
To determine the best method to decrease response to frightening stimuli in a horse, a study was performed in Europe that used three different training methods.
Horses transported in trailers can certainly experience a range of environmental temperatures and relative humidity, and exposure to different allergens and different contaminants. Horses being moved must adapt to different management strategies, possibly exposure to new horses and unfamiliar spaces, unfamiliar movements beneath their feet, and different water and feeding patterns. So if you haul horses, all of these parameters must be considered.
If you have a horse that has foundered, ask your vet about an EVA shoe.
There are many methods to deal with these horses for treatment, but the key is to try to do everything safely for the horse and humans.
The overall feeling is that Adequan is moderately effective at treating chronic joint disease while hyaluronic acid is more effective at treating acute joint disease.
Infectious diarrhea is a totally different problem than heat diarrhea and is much more serious.
Navicular disease is a common cause of lameness in performance horses.
One of the most common treatments being used is injecting platelet-rich plasma as platelets contain high levels of growth factors at high concentrations.
The most common reason wounds on horses do not heal correctly is because of a condition called proud flesh. Proud flesh is actually normal granulation tissue that has overgrown the wound edges. If you see a wound on a horse in which the tissue inside the laceration has grown out farther than the skin edge, that is proud flesh.
Horses are susceptible to stomach ulcers. Stomach ulcers in adult horses typically cause a decreased appetite and intermittent colic.
Further studies are needed.
Probably the most common illness in baby calves is diarrhea, which is also called scours.
There are many vaccines approved for use in the horse and it is difficult to determine which ones should be used and when. Dr. James Wilson from the University of Minnesota recently reviewed the available vaccines.
Other than the basics, the other vaccines your horse receives depends on exposure to other horses and risk of disease. If you haul your horses to shows or other events, then vaccination against influenza, strangles, and equine herpes virus may be indicated.
Horses that are exposed to other horses and are moved routinely are susceptible to strangles and younger horses are the most susceptible. There are two injectable vaccines and one intranasal strangles vaccine available on the market.
A lot of attention has been focused on the dangers of vaccinations in small animals and humans. Most of the concerns are related to the preservatives in the vaccines rather than the antigens themselves. Because of this, many vets have developed a list of core vaccines that all horses should receive annually while other vaccines should be used depending on exposure.
The pH testing of milk seems to be as accurate at predicting foaling time as the standard calcium tests strips. The pH strips are also less expensive and require less time to run the test.
One of the most common conditions of the horse’s stifle is upward fixation of the patella.
One of the most common urinary tract disorders in horses is cystic urolithiasis, or urinary bladder stones. Although the cause of bladder stones in many animals is related to diet, the cause of bladder stones in horses is still not known.
A new product has recently been introduced to the horse market that I feel is potentially dangerous for horses and their owners.
Horses are more settled while being hauled with a mirror than without.
Amnion, part of the afterbirth, can be sutured over the corneal ulcer.
The advantage of a grazing muzzle is that the horse can be turned out on regular pasture to get exercise and be with the other horses and yet not eat too much pasture grass.
Delayed healing of wounds on the lower legs of horses is common and honey has been used in these cases. Medical grade honey is available but many equine veterinarians are using non-medical grade honey for the same purpose.
X-rays can be extremely helpful in trimming the foot because you can determine the bone’s location.
A common finding in many brood mares is the presence of uterine cysts. These are fluid-filled structures inside the lumen of the uterus that can have an adverse effect on pregnancy. There are two types of cysts that occur.
The question is when to begin vaccinating foals and for what diseases? Very few vaccines actually have label directions for foals and those that do have directions are very inconsistent between companies.
Research is being performed to determine which formulations of vaccines may stimulate the best immunity in older horses because if the horse does not respond to the vaccine, the vaccine will not prevent disease.
Many of you in the horse business may have already heard that vesicular stomatitis has been found in the area of Phoenix, Arizona.
Vesicular stomatitis or VS, is a viral disease that causes painful ulcers inside the mouth, lips, muzzle, teats, and hooves, and affects horses, cattle, sheep, swine, and deer. VS is generally not fatal and usually lasts only about 2 weeks. However, it is highly contagious and one of the major concerns about the disease is the symptoms resemble those of foot and mouth disease.
Viral respiratory diseases are fairly common in horses in early summer as they move from show to show.
Warts, also called papillomas, are caused by a virus and are usually found in young horses because they have a decreased immunity that plays a role in this syndrome.
It's difficult to find guidelines specific for equine drinking water because most of the guidelines are listed for all livestock.
There are many different possibilities as to why a horse would lose weight.
Chronic inflammatory disease can cause weight loss and is a common problem.
Overweight horses are fed too much feed or they have a genetic hormonal problem called equine metabolic syndrome.
The most accurate technique to weigh a horse or any other large animal is on a walk-on scale, or by weighing the animal and trailer and then the trailer only. Horses can be weighed fairly accurately with a weight tape that is available at most feed stores. This tape is place around the heart girth just behind the fore legs and the weight is read right off the tape. A formula is also available for determining the weight of your horse.
The annual examination is important.
The nutrient value of grass hay will differ depending on the concentration of grasses involved and their rate of maturity when bailed.
Any treatment requires the separated hoof wall to be x-rayed and removed.
A bit seat is formed by removing a portion of the frontal surface of the first cheek tooth of both the lower and upper arcades.
The question is should wolfe teeth be removed or left alone, and the answer is it depends on the intended use of the horse.
Horses get cut very easily due to their thin skin and excitable nature. Fortunately, they also heal very well if treated correctly.
Today we will focus on lower leg wounds, as these are the most difficult to heal. There are many different methods of treating lower leg wounds and because they are difficult to heal, your vet should examine these wounds as soon a possible. The most common problem with leg wounds is proud flesh.
One of the most severe injuries a horse can suffer is a laceration or puncture that involves a joint or tendon sheath.

About the author(s)
Bob Judd, DVM is a private practitioner from Hewitt. Dr. Judd, a 1979 graduate of Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine, has a practice that has been centered around horses and small animals for over two decades. In 1998, Dr. Judd became board certified by the American Board of Veterinary Practitioners in Equine Practice. Dr. Judd was named the Texas Veterinary Medical Association's Equine Vet of the Year for 2005.

Don Kyser joined the TFB staff in 1997 as host of Farm Bureau Roundup and News-Source. Kyser has more than 25 years of experience in broadcast media. The well-known radio personality has worked in news and programming for several Waco radio stations.

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